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When considering the structure of the brain, there are 3 major parts,

  1. Fore brain
  2. Mid brain
  3. Hind brain

Structure of the fore brain

When considering the structure of the fore brain, there are 3 major parts,


Hypothalamus is situated at the base of the fore brain, immediately beneath the thalamus and above the pituitary gland. It divides into several separate areas which has its own specific function. Hypothalamus is the main coordinating and control center for the autonomous nervous system. The hypothalamus connects to the pituitary gland and it is the main link between the nervous system and the endocrine system.  


The thalamus consists of two masses of nerve cells and fibers situated within the cerebral hemisphere just bellow the corpus callosum, one on each side of the 3rd ventricle.

The cerebrum

This is the largest part of the brain which consists of two cerebral hemispheres. Deep and longitudinal cleft separates hemispheres. The peripheral region of the cerebral hemisphere is known as the cerebral cortex. Cerebral cortex consists of grey matter containing thousands of millions of nerve cells including their cell bodies. White matter containing nerve fibers consists beneath the cortex. The cerebral cortex shows many infoldings called furrows of varying depth. The exposed areas of the folds are called convolutions and these are separated by sulci. These convolutions greatly increase the surface area of the cerebrum.

When considering the structure of a hemisphere there are 4 lobes in each hemisphere.


2) Parietal

3) Temporal

4) Occipital

Deep furrows mark the bodies of the lobes. Each cerebral hemisphere consists one of the lateral ventricles filled with cerebrospinal fluid. A mass white matter called the corpus callosum connects the hemispheres deep within the brain. There are areas of grey matter, lying deep within the cerebral hemisphere basal ganglia. They act as relay stations that help to pass impulses from one neuron to the next.

Mid brain

Mid brain is the area of the brain between the cerebrum and the pons varolii below. It consists of group of nerve cells and nerve fibers which connect the cerebrum with owe parts of the brain and the spinal cord. Optic nerve enters the mid brain.

Hind brain

When considering the structure of the hind brain, there are 2 major parts,


This is located at the back of the brain, under the cerebral hemisphere, behind the pons varolii. Cerebellum is ovoid in shape while it has two hemispheres separated by a narrow median strip. Hemispheres are greatly convoluted. Grey matter forms the surface of the cerebellum and the white matter lies deeply.

Pons varolii

The pons varolii is situated in front of the cerebellum, below the midbrain and above the medulla oblongata. It consists mainly white matter. Grey matter lies deeply and white matter is on the surface.

Medulla oblongata Medulla oblongata extends from the pons varolii and continuous with the spinal cord. White matter lies outer side while grey matter lies centrally. Medulla oblongata is one o the best part of the brain and one of the most vital.